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FAQ

Below is an ever-growing set of questions and answers about the website, the scales, the books, and other topics of relevance to those who visit this site. If you would rather search the list rather than skim through it, please use the Ctrl-F combination and then type a word or two in the search box. If you have suggestions for other questions you think should be answered here, please send them to service@marketingscales.com.
Q:
Which books are available for Kindle devices?
A:
There are 3 books: Volume 8, The Top 20, & Measuring Innovation. No others have been released because experience has shown there is little interest in this type of material in that format.
Q:
Is the Kindle version of the Marketing Scales Handbook (V8) only readable on a Kindle tablet? What if I want to use it on another device?
A:
You can read Kindle ebooks on a variety of different devices IF you install the Kindle Reader app. That means you do not have to use a Kindle tablet to read the Marketing Scales Handbook (V8).
Q:
Why aren't more of the volumes of the Marketing Scales Handbooks series available in paper?
A:
Volumes 5 and 6 have so many pages and are difficult to bind that they would be very expensive. Volumes 7, 8, & 9 have been published as paperbacks and are available at Amazon.com.
Q:
Which volumes of the Marketing Scales Handbook series are available in paper?
A:
Volumes 1 to 4 were released in paper but are no longer published and copies are very difficult to find. Volumes 7 - 9 have been printed & are available at Amazon & elsewhere..
Q:
Why is the digital version of Volume 8 only available at Amazon & not at the website?
A:
The previous ebooks have been hijacked by unauthorized party’s around the world which threatened the survival of the review work & publications. The decision was made to have the digital version of Volume 8 only available at Amazon where copies could be protected after purchase with DRM.
Q:
Why aren’t there more reviews of scales used by practitioners in industry rather than just those used by academics in their scholarly studies?
A:
Which scales are used by industry researchers is largely unknown whereas those used by academics are known due to their publications. Practitioners are probably not rewarded for the effort involved in getting published and, in fact, may not be allowed to publish what their employers/clients believe is proprietary.
Q:
Can I get a refund if I don’t like what I ordered?
A:
If there is a technical problem with an order, contact service@marketingscales.com. If, however, you have already downloaded a book, a review, or visited the database using the Day Pass, there are no refunds.
Q:
Why have some books covered more scales and years than others?
A:
Volume 1 covered the 1980s. Volumes 2-6 each reviewed scales from four years’ worth of articles. The large books were more difficult & expensive to print. All of that delayed how quickly reviews could be available to researchers. With subsequent volumes, two years’ worth of scales were covered, allowing material to be “fresher” than in the past.
Q:
I have paid for my order at the site. Where are the things I ordered?
A:
Be sure you are logged into the site. From most of the pages at the site, you should see a button towards the top of the pages called My Account. Click on it. From that page, click on the tab that is related to what you bought, e.g., Handbook, Purchased Reviews, Scale Review Database. You should see the item(s) you ordered.
Q:
What forms of payment can I use?
A:
Orders can be paid for at the site with a recognized credit card. If that is not possible, contact service@marketingscales.com and describe what you want to order. An invoice will be sent to you from Paypal providing more payment options than are available at the website. When the invoice is paid, you will be sent your order via email.
Q:
If I am a past customer and can’t log in for some reason, how can I reset my password?
A:
Reset by logging-in with the user name or email address used during the purchase. Then, click Request new password (just above the green Log in button). You’ll be asked for your email address again and if the system finds you have previously ordered from the site with that address, you will be sent a link and instructions about what to do next.
Q:
If I can log in, how can I change my user name, password, or email address?
A:
When logged in, click on the My Account page. When on the My Account page, click on Update Account to make the desired changes.
Q:
Does the site administrator know my log in credentials?
A:
The user names can be seen by the administrator. Passwords are not visible and have to be reset by users, if desired. (See separate Q&A for instructions.)
Q:
What steps are taken to keep transactions secure?
A:
The payment part of ordering is handled by Paypal with its sophisticated security system. Also, in most browsers, clicking the lock icon near the site's URL will provide information about the rightful owner. You can get more security information by clicking the green GoDaddy label at the bottom of the Checkout page.
Q:
Is the administrator of the site able to see my credit/debit card information?
A:
No. The credit card details entered when ordering products at the site are not stored at the site. Transactions are handled by Paypal. While the administrator can tell if a customer has paid with a credit or debit card, no specific information about that card is visible.
Q:
Is it possible to get a license for extended access to the scale review database, not just 24-hours?
A:
Extended access is not an “off the shelf” option at this time but it may be provided as a custom order in some cases. Send your request to service@marketingscales.com being sure to describe the length of access desired, the number of users wanting access, and a description of who they are, e.g., students, faculty, employees.
Q:
In many cases, the extreme verbal anchors of a response scale are given in the reviews of a scale. Why aren’t all of a scale's verbal anchors given?
A:
It is rare for all of the verbal anchors to be reported in articles. Given that, users can use their judgment to decide what they should be. Further, users may want to consult other sources to decide if it is best to use anchors for all of the scale points or just for the extremes.
Q:
Many of the scales described in the reviews as “Likert-type” do not explicitly state the format provided for participants to respond to the items. What response format should be used?
A:
Frequently, the users of a scale merely state that it was “Likert-type” and do not describe the verbal anchors of the response scale. In that case, it can be assumed that extreme verbal anchors such as Strongly Disagree/Strongly Agree can be used with it. That response format is so common that it is not always mentioned in the reviews.
Q:
Why do some reviews reference many users of a scale while others show just one?
A:
Partially, it depends on how many published studies have used a scale. Additionally, the reviews in Volumes 1-5 were cumulative; a previously reviewed scale might be updated for a subsequent volume if there was new usage to report. For Volume 6 and even more so in subsequent volumes, the focus is on scales that have not been reviewed previously.
Q:
In the Origin section of the reviews, why is the source of a scale not always identified?
A:
When researchers use scales and report them in their articles, they do not always identify where the measures came from. They may have borrowed or adapted scales that already existed but, for some reason, did not cite the source. In many cases, the researchers have created the scales themselves but do not explicitly state that.
Q:
The scale reviews provide information about a scale's source; what is the point of that?
A:
Providing information about a scale’s source is important for several reasons. First, even if users do not have to get permission to use a scale, the creators deserve to be acknowledged. Second, by knowing who created a scale, it gives future users the names of whom to contact for help with the scale or related research.
Q:
What can I do to get hard copies of scale reviews?
A:
Reviews within books, purchased individually, or found with a Day Pass can be printed out if you so choose.
Q:
What should I do if I want to know more about a particular scale?
A:
Most of the scales have been created by college professors and they are usually open to discussing their research. Feel free to track them down and contact them. You can also contact Dr. Bruner.
Q:
Is there a review for each usage of a scale or are similar scales reviewed together?
A:
In general, the rule has been for scales that measure the same construct and have at least half of their content in common to be reviewed together. For various reasons, there are exceptions to that rule.
Q:
Who performs the reviews?
A:
All reviews are conducted and written by Dr. Bruner.
Q:
What information is provided in the reviews?
A:
A review describes what a scale appears to measure, its origin, several aspects of its quality, and the items/questions that can be used in a questionnaire.
Q:
What is the purpose of knowing a scale's validity?
A:
Validity has to do with how well a scale measures what it is intended to measure rather than something else. If all other things are equal, preference should be given to a scale for which evidence of validity has been found.
Q:
What is the purpose of knowing a scale's reliability?
A:
The primary purpose is to estimate how consistent a measure is. Assuming a construct does not change, you want the measure of it to be the same (consistent) time after time.
Q:
Why should a researcher use a multi-item vs. single-item scale?
A:
The psychological constructs represented in the database are unlikely to be measured accurately with just one item. Although there can be exceptions, one item scales are generally unreliable. If they are unreliable then they are invalid measures that can lead to erroneous conclusions..
Q:
When does it make sense to get a Day Pass rather than the books?
A:
The Day Pass allows a person to access all of the scales in the database. That is much more content than is available in any one book. Further, the material in the database is updated over time while a person’s copy of a book is not.
Q:
When should a Day Pass be used vs. buying scale reviews individually?
A:
The choice may have to do with how many scales you want. Compare the price of the Day Pass with the total cost of buying the individual reviews you want. Also, do you already know exactly which scales to get or would it be worthwhile to see, compare, and choose between alternative measures?
Q:
Since searches are free, why buy a Day Pass?
A:
Although the same database is being searched both with and without a Day Pass, the free searches only provide brief descriptions of the scales found and NOT the scale items/questions. In contrast, the Day Pass allows a person to see the full reviews of the scales, including the actual measures themselves.
Q:
What is the source of the scales?
A:
The scales have all come from articles that were published in the top scholarly journals associated with the discipline of marketing. The majority of the scales were developed by the authors of the articles and are professors.
Q:
There are alternative scales for many constructs; how do I know which one is best?
A:
Choosing the “best” scale depends on how well the scale items fit your purpose. Also, a choice between alternative measures should be based on quality. That is why a Day Pass is helpful in comparing and choosing between alternative scales.
Q:
If a book is ordered, is a hard (paper) copy sent by mail?
A:
Books bought from this site are pdf files that you download. No hard copies are mailed. Paperback versions of Volumes 7-9 & other books can be ordered from Amazon.com.
Q:
Why would a person get a book rather than a Day Pass?
A:
With a Day Pass, a person must search for & download desired scales in a limited time period. The books are better for those who would rather have a resource that could be consulted repeatedly overtime when convenient.
Q:
What is the scales database?
A:
The database, also referred to as the Library, has thousands of multi-item measures that have been reviewed over time. All of the scales have been used in research that was published in leading academic journals associated with the field of marketing.
Q:
Does the database change over time?
A:
Yes. The database grows as new scales are reviewed and added, even before they are published as part of a new volume. Also, previously added scales are edited on occasion to add new material or correct errors.
Q:
Why are there so few scales with less than 3 items?
A:
In the early volumes, measures with 2 or more items were considered adequate. As time went on, there were too many scales to review. Plus, as scale sophistication grew in the field there was increased preference for scales with at least 3 items.