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loneliness

How much a person has experienced the feeling of being isolated and ostracized is measured with three, seven-point items.  Clear instructions should be provided to participants so that they respond with respect to a particular time period.

Using three, seven-point items, the scale measures how lonely a person reports feeling at a point in time, especially as compared to “other people.”

The scale uses four, five-point items to measure how much a person experienced something with other people rather than alone.

One's lack of close relationships with family members and a romantic partner from whom support and encouragement can be received is measured with ten, seven-point Likert-type items.

This five item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures one's lack of friends who can provide a sense of belonging as well as understanding and help.

Eight, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the extent to which a person feels excluded and unaccepted.  While the construct measured is extremely close to what is usually meant by "loneliness," more of the items in this scale have to do with one’s isolation rather than the affective response to it, e.g., unhappiness.

How much a person expresses experiencing an undesirable subjective feeling of social isolation is measured using twenty, four point items.

This is a four-item, four-point, Likert-type scale measuring the deficiency one perceives in his/her social relationships. Referring to an unpleasant subjective experience, this is not necessarily the same as social isolation. Therefore, at one extreme, a person could feel lonely in a crowd or, at the other extreme, could be alone and not feel lonely.

Eight, seven-point, one word descriptors are used to assess the strength of the sadness-related emotions reported by a person as a result of exposure to some stimulus. Using the same items but slightly different instructions, another version of the scale measured emotions depicted by someone else or in something else. The stimuli examined by Williams and Aaker (2002) were print ads but the scale appears to be amenable for use with a variety of stimuli.

The scale is composed of twenty, four point statements assessing the extent to which a person makes statements symptomatic of depression in adults. The formal name for the measure is Center for Epidemiology Depression scale (CES-D).