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The degree to which a person believes a certain individual shows off in order to impress people is measured in this scale with five, seven-point Likert-type items.

Using three, 10 point questions, this scale measures the degree to which a person thought about how he/she was being evaluated by a particular person with whom he/she had interacted.  In this case, “evaluation” is meant more in the sense of being “sized-up” or judged rather than formal testing or professional diagnosis.

The degree to which a person manages his/her behavior so as to present a positive image to others is measured with Likert-type items.

How well a person believes that he/she is able to speak to others, regardless of the size of the group, is measured in this scale with four items.

This seven item scale is intended to measure a person’s ability to alter his/her behavior in order to portray an image suited for a social situation.

Four, five-point statements are used to measure the degree to which the information and interactivity provided at a website regarding a product has evoked mental images of the product and its usage. The scale was called mental imagery by Schlosser (2003).

The eighteen-item scale is intended to measure the extent to which a person observes and controls his/her expressive behavior for the purpose of managing a desired appearance to others.