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With reference to a particular shopping trip and store, three, seven-point Likert-type items measure the extent to which a consumer left without making a purchase.

Leaving an area within a store or the store itself without buying the product of interest is measured with six, seven-point semantic differentials.  Two versions of the scale are described. Temporary abandonment has to do with the shopper's intention to return later in the shopping trip to make the purchase while Permanent Abandonment means the shopper does not plan to return to buy the product.

The scale uses three, seven-point items to measure a consumer's beliefs about how often he/she has been at a website ready to make a purchase but decided not to finish the transaction when the costs involved (shipping, sales tax, and total amount) were realized at checkout.

This scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a consumer's reason for placing items in a shopping cart at a website but not checking out due to concern about identity-theft as well as other privacy and security issues.

This scale is composed of three, seven-point items that measure a consumer's frequency of placing items in a shopping cart at a website but deciding not to checkout because of the willingness to put the purchase on hold in order to look for a better price.

A consumer's beliefs about how often he/she has put items in an online shopping cart but not bought them during the same visit to the site is measured with four, seven-point items.