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smoking

How effective a person believes a particular anti-smoking message to be in terms of changing attitudes and behaviors is measured with three items.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure several negative beliefs a person has about smoking.  The items refer not only to the direct effects that the behavior may have on the smoker but also to the indirect effects that the smoke may have on children.

A person's belief that smoking has a calming effect on him/her is measured in this scale with three statements and a seven-point Likert-like response format.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-like items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person's believes that smoking has a positive effect on the way he/she looks.

Three, five point statements are used to measure the degree to which a person expresses the possibility of smoking, even a little bit, in the unspecified future.

The scale has five, five point statements and measures the degree to which a person believes that smoking is acceptable and, in fact, is attractive to his/her circle of friends. Given the phrasing of items #4 and #5, the scale is most appropriate for teens. The scale was called severity of social disapproval risks by Pechmann et al. (2003).

Twelve, four-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's beliefs about three negative aspects of smoking: tobacco company deception, secondhand smoke dangers, and addictiveness.

Three, four-point items are used to measure a person's expressed likelihood of smoking in the future.

Six, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure the health and cleanliness-related characteristics a person associates with those who smoke. Two versions of the scale were used. One had to do with how a person thinks that smokers are perceived by others (reference group evaluations) and another focusing on how a person thinks that smokers perceive themselves (self evaluations).

The intelligence and success-related characteristics a person associates with those who smoke is measured with four, nine-point semantic differentials. Two versions of the scale were used. One had to do with how a person thinks that smokers are perceived by others (reference group evaluations) and another focusing on how a person thinks that smokers perceive themselves (self evaluations).