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The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


The scale is a four-item, five-point Likert-type measure of the degree to which a consumer agrees that a recent shopping trip allowed him/her to accomplish what was wanted (purchase of the items sought). The scale is supposed to tap into the view that shopping is primarily a means to an end (obtaining goods and services) rather than being enjoyed as an end in itself.

Nine, nine-point scales are used to measure the degree to which a person is motivated by achievement and focused on opportunities for advancement.

This four-item, six-point Likert-type scale is supposed to measure the degree to which a person feels he/she has been challenged but prevailed in a situation.

Seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person has a holistic view of time rather than focusing on the present, with an emphasis on working towards a better future.

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's attitude regarding the extent to which an Internet-usage task has challenged his/her abilities. The scale was called navigational challenge by Mathwick and Rigdon (2004).

This four item, seven-point Likert-type scale is intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that he/she is making progress towards accomplishment of a particular goal and is likely to reach it.

The scale is composed of four, five-point Likert-type statements measuring the degree to which a person views a product (generic) or brand (specific) as helping to achieve desirable outcomes and life goals. The underlying construct has been alternatively referred to as the approach goal (Carver and Scheier 1990) or a promotion focus (Higgins 1997).

The scale is a three-item, seven-point measure of one's attitude toward a specific advertisement with an emphasis on the extent to which it expresses some emotion-like qualities related to pride. Note that the way in which the scale stem is phrased the scale measures what one thinks the ad expresses rather than the emotion one has experienced in reaction to the ad.