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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


The scale is composed of statements using a five-point response format that measure how often a parent encourages his/her children to form their own consumption preferences. The tone suggested in the items is of positive communication where the child's role, assistance, and opinion is respected rather than their purchases being dictated to them.

Four, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure a person's level of satisfaction with some person, place, or thing.

Three, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the attitude a physician has about writing prescriptions for medications that have been specifically requested by patients.

Four, seven-point statements assess the degree to which a person makes a favorable assessment of a product, such that it is viewed as being important to use and would be recommended to others.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the extent to which a customer expresses an active involvement in the running of a store, with emphasis on verbal suggestions and feedback about improving service. This is distinct from the use of the term participation as used in some service literature, where it means active involvement in the production of the service.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the propensity for a consumer to seek out the advice of others before making a purchase decision in some specified product category. Although this measure and the construct it is intended to capture were viewed by its developers (Flynn, Goldsmith, and Eastman 1996) as distinct from opinion leadership, they admitted that there could be some relationship. This was believed to be because opinion leaders could certainly seek information from others, but not all opinion seekers would lead others.

Six Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person not only has a wide range of knowledge regarding products to buy, places to shop, and other consumption-related activities but additionally influences others by passing on this information.  This construct is a form of polymorphism (e.g., Rogers 2003, p. 314).

Three, seven-point items measure the degree to which a consumer describes his or her tendency to discuss grocery shopping with friends and seek their advice.

A four-item, Likert-type scale is used to measure a person's willingness to follow a physician's advice.

A three-item scale is used to measure the degree to which a person expresses the desire to conform to a friend's expectations about a purchase decision. Two of the items had seven-point scales and one had a five-point scale. Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel (1989) did not explain why they constructed the scale this way.