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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

aggression

The extent to which an object is considered to be powerful and aggressive is measured with three, seven-point items.

The scale uses three, five-point unipolar items to measure how much a person describes someone as having traits stereotypically associated with males.

With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a customer believes a salesperson was using high-pressure sales tactics and pushing him/her to make a decision prematurely.

How much a person views the interaction that occurred between him/herself and another person as being competitive and businesslike is measured using four, seven-point items.

The level of violence a person believes there is in a particular video game is measured using four, five-point items.  Given the phrasing of one of the items, the assumption is that the respondent has actually played the game rather than having merely heard about it in some way.

The degree to which a person believes that males are generally characterized by greater physical strength and ambition than females is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items.

The level of hostility portrayed in an advertisement that upsets a viewer is measured in this scale using three, ten-point unipolar items.

A person's attitude regarding a man's use of violence with women as part of the satisfaction of his sexual desires is measured in this scale using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person's tendency to respond angrily and with hostility when provoked is measured in this scale using six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Six personality characteristics stereotypically associated with men are used in this scale to describe a brand.