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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

anger

Five, seven-point unipolar items are used to measure a person's emotional reaction to some stimulus with an emphasis on several "negative" feelings.

Three, nine-point items are used to measure the stated probability a customer would voice his/her opinion to a service manager and demand a refund because of a negative service-related experience. As phrased by Bonifield and Cole (2008), the statements were hypothetical because the subjects in their study were asked to respond to an incident in a video they watched. Simple rephrasing of the items enables them to be used when customers have actually experienced something (when it is real rather than hypothetical).

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the extent to which a customer is mad at a service provider due to an experience that has occurred. As phrased by Bonifield and Cole (2008), the statements were hypothetical because the subjects in their study were asked to respond to an incident in a video they watched. Simple rephrasing of the items by dropping the word "would" enables them to be used when customers have actually experienced something (i.e., when it is not hypothetical).

Five, seven-point statements are used to measure a person's attitude regarding the sale of an object in his/her possession. The scale makes the most sense to use when the focal object potentially has some symbolic and/or emotional value to the respondent. McGraw, Tetlock, and Kristel (2003) called the scale predicted stress because the items (as shown below) were stated hypothetically. If desired, the sale could be easily adapted to become a more direct measure if the items are stated in the present tense, e.g., "I reject the idea as completely inappropriate."

Three, five-point items are used to assess a person's anger-related emotions. The directions and response scale can be worded so as to measure the intensity of the emotional state at the present time, or they can be adjusted to measure the frequency with which a person has experienced the emotional trait during some specified time period. One-word items were used in the studies by Bougie, Pieters, and Zeelenberg (2003) and Westbrook and Oliver (1991) while phrases based on those same items were used by Allen, Machleit, and Kleine (1992).

The five item, seven-point Likert-type scale appears to measure a person's negative affective reaction to some specific stimulus.

The scale is composed of ten, semantic differential phrases measuring a person's reaction to an ad he/she has been exposed to with the emphasis on the negative types of feelings that were experienced.

Various versions of the scale have been used to measure the degree of negative affect one has toward some specified stimulus. Some of the scales differ in their temporal instructions while others vary in the items used. The items can be used to measure one's mood state at a particular point in time or, at the other extreme, reference to a year's time may be used as something more like a trait measure of affect. Richins' (1991) version in particular is somewhat different in that it focuses just on a fear emotion rather than a broader negative affect. Similarly, Beatty and Ferrell (1998) were interested in the level of negative affect felt during a particular shopping trip and used a three item, seven-point version of the scale.

This measure is composed of several uni-polar items and is purported to measure the degree of negative feelings a consumer reports experiencing when exposed to a specific advertisement. The scale has been used over time with varying numbers of items.

There is an important distinction between this measure and attitude-toward-the-ad. As Mooradian stated in the directions used with his scale, subjects were to describe "reactions to the ad, not to how you would describe the ad" (1996, p. 101). Admittedly, there should be a high correspondence between the two but they are still theoretically distinct constructs.

The seven-point semantic differential scale is intended to measure a person's attitude toward a boycott of a specified marketer and propensity to engage in it personally.