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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

anger

Four statements and a seven-point response scale are used to assess a person's concern about activities a company is engaged in that are the basis for a boycott it is experiencing.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure a person's negative feelings towards a specified country because of something it was responsible for during a war.

The scale attempts to measure the degree to which a person who has just been exposed to some stimulus describes his/her emotional response in negative terms such as sadness and anger. The stimulus used in the study conducted by Price, Arnould, and Tierney (1995) was a river rafting trip. In the study by Coulter (1998) the stimulus was a TV program.

Eighteen, five-point summated rating scales are used to measure the potency of a person's overall negative emotional response to a stimulus to which he or she has been exposed. The stimulus used in the study by Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) was an antidrug-related public service announcement.

A three-item, six-point scale is used to measure the degree to which a person describes feeling a sense of anger and possibly hatred on exposure to some stimulus. Phrasing of the scale was such that it measured the respondent's emotional reaction to a stimulus rather than the attitude toward the stimulus itself.

A four-item Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person has experienced feeling uneasy and angry. Taylor (1995) referred to the measure as negative affect.

Fifteen five-point descriptors are used to measure a person's overall negative emotional reaction to some stimulus. The scale is a combination of three subdimensions: anger, fear, and discouragement. A five-item, seven-point scale very similar to the anger subdimension was used by Nyer (1997).

A 34-item scale is used to measure a person's expressed tendency to experience three dimensions of psychological hostility: assault, irritability, and verbal hostility.

The three item scale used by Whipple and Courtney (1980) measured the degree to which consumers described an ad as being insulting to themselves and others.