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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

arousal

The scale is composed of five, seven-point semantic differentials attempting to measure a person's thoughts about some specified object with an emphasis on how fun and exciting it is. Neelamegham and Jain (1999) used it specifically as a measure of consumer expectations regarding a movie.

The scale is composed of 14 sets of items intended to measure the extent to which a person seeks situations in which arousal levels are expected to be low and avoids situations that might generate high arousal.

The scale is composed of multiple, five-point descriptors measuring one's overall positive emotional reaction to some stimulus. The stimuli examined in the studies by Coulter (1998) as well as Murry and Dacin (1996) were TV programs whereas in the study by Oliver, Rust, and Varki (1997) it was a recreational wildlife theme park.

Eighteen, five-point summated rating scales are used to measure the potency of a person's overall negative emotional response to a stimulus to which he or she has been exposed. The stimulus used in the study by Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) was an antidrug-related public service announcement.

Five, four-point items are purported to measure the general activation and energy arousal a person is feeling at some point in time.

Five, four-point items are purported to measure the high activation (tension arousal) a person is experiencing at some point in time.

Four, seven-point bipolar adjectives are used to measure the degree to which a person who has just been exposed to an ad has experienced a fear-related emotional response.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person seeks entertainment at a variety of locations rather than always going to the same places.

Five, five-point Likert-type statements are purported to measure the extent to which a person is willing to seek out and engage in risky activities.

A three-item, six-point scale is used to measure the degree to which a person describes feeling a sense of anger and possibly hatred on exposure to some stimulus. Phrasing of the scale was such that it measured the respondent's emotional reaction to a stimulus rather than the attitude toward the stimulus itself.