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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


A person’s overall attitude about a particular product is measured in this scale with four, nine-point items.

The degree to which a person believes that a particular brand has opposing meanings is measured with six, nine-point items.  While the items might refer to functional or quality aspects of a brand, the scale was created with respect to the identity promoted by a company for a brand.

How much a consumer considers a particular product class to be important and of interest is measured with six, five-point semantic differentials.

A person’s attitude about food made from safe-to-eat ingredients that would otherwise be wasted is measured with ten, seven-point semantic differentials.

How much a person considers a particular brand to have a history as well as being timeless and consistent over time is measured with four, nine-point Likert items.

Three, seven-point items measure how much a consumer values a product after reading a wide range of reviewer opinions about it compared to how much it was valued before being exposed.  As phrased in the items, the opinions come from electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) such as posted at websites of retailers, manufacturers, and others.

How much a particular brand is considered to be exciting and something the person wants to know more about is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

How much a consumer thinks that a particular product costs a lot of money is measured with four, seven-point Likert items.  Unlike some other measures of product value, this scale does not explicitly measure if the product is a good deal but rather that the product is considered to be valuable.

Using four, ten-point semantic differentials, the scale measures the extent to which a person believes a brand has human-like characteristics such as closeness and sincerity. 

Six, five-point Likert-type items measure how much a child likes a particular product and believes it does what it is expected to do.