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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

attitudes

This four-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that as stores become more self-service oriented, there is less personal interaction between salespeople and customers. The scale was referred to by Forman and Sriram (1991) as perceived depersonalization of the shopping experience (PDS).

This five-item, seven-point Likert-type measure assesses a consumer's reported adeptness at and enjoyment of bargaining.

This four-item, seven-point, Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a consumer expresses enjoyment of shopping-related activities. The stated focus in each item is on shopping as part of prepurchase search activity rather than shopping as part of on-going search activity.

This five-item scale is purported to measure the perceptions of quality that a consumer has about a product he/she is knowledgeable of. The measure was referred to as perceived quality indicators by Dodds, Monroe, and Grewal (1991).

This is a three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale that assesses the degree to which a consumer believes that a sale price is a true decrease in the normal price of a product rather than being the price typically charged by a retailer. The scale was referred to by Lichtenstein, Burton, and Karson (1991) as cue consistency.

This six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a person who has just had an extraordinary experience views it as being personally challenging and instructive.

This is a three-item, seven-point, Likert-type scale measuring the degree to which a consumer believes that the quality of brands in a particular product category can be judged adequately by visual inspection rather than actual trial.

This three-item, seven-point bipolar adjective scale is used to measure the perceived quality of an audio/video product. The specific product used in the experiment by Gotlieb and Sarel (1992) was a VCR but the items would appear to be suitable for examining a variety of audio/video products such as televisions, DVD players, video game consoles, et cetera.

This four-item, five-point, Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a consumer enjoys shopping where store employees know his/her name and will converse with him/her about topics other than products. The scale was referred to by Forman and Sriram (1991) as Shopping as a Social Experience (SSE).

This scale is composed of six, five-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person is oriented toward possessing goods and money as a means of personal happiness and social progress.