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attitudes

This four-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that as stores become more self-service oriented, there is less personal interaction between salespeople and customers. The scale was referred to by Forman and Sriram (1991) as perceived depersonalization of the shopping experience (PDS).

This four-item, seven-point, Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a consumer expresses enjoyment of shopping-related activities. The stated focus in each item is on shopping as part of prepurchase search activity rather than shopping as part of on-going search activity.

This five-item, seven-point Likert-type measure assesses a consumer's reported adeptness at and enjoyment of bargaining.

This is a three-item, seven-point, Likert-type scale measuring the degree to which a consumer believes that the quality of brands in a particular product category can be judged adequately by visual inspection rather than actual trial.

This three-item, seven-point bipolar adjective scale is used to measure the perceived quality of an audio/video product. The specific product used in the experiment by Gotlieb and Sarel (1992) was a VCR but the items would appear to be suitable for examining a variety of audio/video products such as televisions, DVD players, video game consoles, et cetera.

This four-item, five-point, Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a consumer enjoys shopping where store employees know his/her name and will converse with him/her about topics other than products. The scale was referred to by Forman and Sriram (1991) as Shopping as a Social Experience (SSE).

This five-item scale is purported to measure the perceptions of quality that a consumer has about a product he/she is knowledgeable of. The measure was referred to as perceived quality indicators by Dodds, Monroe, and Grewal (1991).

This is a three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale that assesses the degree to which a consumer believes that a sale price is a true decrease in the normal price of a product rather than being the price typically charged by a retailer. The scale was referred to by Lichtenstein, Burton, and Karson (1991) as cue consistency.

This six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a person who has just had an extraordinary experience views it as being personally challenging and instructive.

The scale has 27 seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which one believes that heath outcomes are controllable. Internals are those who believe outcomes are based upon their own behavior whereas externals think that outcomes depend more on luck, fate, or other people.