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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


A four-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person who has filled out a questionnaire believes his/her responses will remain anonymous.

A three-item, six-point Likert-type scale is used to measure a consumer's attitude toward the social benefits of complaining after a dissatisfying transaction has occurred.

A four-item, five-point summated ratings scale is used to measure the attitude and intention one has toward a specific brand of beer compared with the brand the person drinks most often.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements intended to measure a person's belief that a certain business offers financial rewards to its customers in order to motivate repeat purchases.

A person's belief that a certain business offers goods, services, and helpful purchase information that are not readily available elsewhere is measured using eight, seven-point Likert-type statements. Although the scale was developed for use with an online store, it appears to be amenable for use with brick-and-mortar retailers as well if they have websites.

Three, seven-point statements are used to measure a consumer's beliefs regarding the inclination of other customers to want a refund from a store if they find a product they bought there to be cheaper elsewhere.

The scale is composed of six, seven-point Likert-type items intended to measure the extent to which a person views the rate of technological change in a particular product category to be high.

Six statements with seven-point Likert-type response scales are used to measure the degree to which a person has bought a product because what it replaces is viewed as being degraded to the point of unacceptability, probably due to poor performance. At the other extreme, a purchase is indicated to have occurred because something newer was available that was more desirable than what was replaced. The scale was called nature of purchase decision by Grewal, Mehta, and Kardes (2004).

The scale is composed of three items with seven-point response formats that measure a person's attitude regarding a store's prices, with some emphasis on how they compare to other stores.

Three, nine-point items are used to measure a consumer's belief regarding which of two stores has the "fairer" prices with regard to a particular product category they carry in common (though some individual items are different). Although a "fairness" judgment can be more complex than merely comparing perceived price points, in this scale "unfair" means a store's prices are more expensive than another store's.