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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


The three-item semantic differential scale measures the degree of importance a specified product characteristic has to a consumer in a choice context. Sujan and Bettman (1989) used it for attributes of 35mm SLR cameras while Desai and Keller (2002) applied it to the scent attribute of laundry detergents.

This three item scale is intended to measure the extent to which a person imagines that an object connects him/her to another time/place.

The scale is composed of three, ten-point Likert-type statements that are intended to measure the strength of the relationship a consumer has with a brand.

Three, five-point items are used to measure a consumer's belief of how well a brand or product category is thought to achieve certain goals. The scale was called ideals at the category level by Martin and Stewart (2001) and ideal attributes by Martin, Stewart, and Matta (2005).

The five item, seven-point Likert-type scale assesses the degree to which a customer relates with a brand/company and believes its image fits well with his/her own self-concept. Aaker, Fournier, and Brasel (2004) referred to the scale as self-connection.

Three statements are used to measure a person's attitude regarding the degree to which something real looks like what it was imagined it would be based upon its depiction in a fictional narrative.

The scale is composed of three statements attempting to assess a consumer's belief of how well a brand can achieve a certain goal. The scale was called goodness-of-fit by Martin and Stewart (2001; Martin, Stewart, and Matta 2005).

The scale is composed of three Likert-type statements that measure the strength with which a person identifies with a certain role they either play or might play.

The scale uses three, nine-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person views a product in general terms because of difficulty in understanding or knowing its specific characteristics.

The four item, nine-point scale attempts to assess a consumer's perception of the justness or equitability of a certain price for a certain product.