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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


Three, five-point items are used to measure a consumer's belief of how well a brand or product category is thought to achieve certain goals. The scale was called ideals at the category level by Martin and Stewart (2001) and ideal attributes by Martin, Stewart, and Matta (2005).

The five item, seven-point Likert-type scale assesses the degree to which a customer relates with a brand/company and believes its image fits well with his/her own self-concept. Aaker, Fournier, and Brasel (2004) referred to the scale as self-connection.

Three statements are used to measure a person's attitude regarding the degree to which something real looks like what it was imagined it would be based upon its depiction in a fictional narrative.

The scale is composed of three statements attempting to assess a consumer's belief of how well a brand can achieve a certain goal. The scale was called goodness-of-fit by Martin and Stewart (2001; Martin, Stewart, and Matta 2005).

The scale is composed of three Likert-type statements that measure the strength with which a person identifies with a certain role they either play or might play.

The scale uses three, nine-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person views a product in general terms because of difficulty in understanding or knowing its specific characteristics.

The four item, nine-point scale attempts to assess a consumer's perception of the justness or equitability of a certain price for a certain product.

The three item scale assesses the degree to which a person views somebody or something as having made mistakes. The scale was called transgression index by Aaker, Fournier, and Brasel (2004) and used with reference to a fictitious company.

Three, four-point statements are used to assess the degree to which a consumer views the managers at a specified company as acting appropriately if/when factory closings are being considered. As used in the study by Klein, Smith, and John (2004), the items appear to be scored such that high scores suggest a person believes it would be flagrantly offensive to close factories unnecessarily.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's perceptions of the amount of effort an employee has put into a particular service encounter.