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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


This three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is intended to measure a person's opinion of a product endorser's physical attractiveness.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used in this scale to measure the ease with which a person is able to process a visual stimulus. It is a combination of perceptual fluency (items #1 and #2) and conceptual fluency (item #3). Labroo, Dhar, and Schwarz (2008) referred to the scale both as ease of processing and a fluency index.

The scale has four, nine-point bi-polar adjectives that measure how much a person views an object as having a personality-like image characterized by traits related to social superiority and attractiveness.

This scale has four, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person is aware of other brands in a product category and believes that at least one of them is as good if not better than a particular brand.

The scale is composed of four, five-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure social and psychological aspects of a child's beliefs about caring for his/her teeth in the opinion of one his/her parents. In other words, the scale is meant to be filled out by a parent of the child. Thus, in essence, what is being measured is the parent's beliefs about a child's beliefs.

Nine, five-point statements are used to measure the degree to which a person is interested in, cares about, and sympathizes with a character on a television program. Russell and Stern (2006) referred to the scale as parasocial attachment.

Four unipolar items are used to measure the degree to which a person has experienced a feeling of abhorrence because of a certain stimulus that is viewed as being physically dirty or unsanitary. In the studies conducted by Argo, Dahl, and Morales (2006), the stimulus that respondents reacted to was putting on a t-shirt that was perceived to be "contaminated" by being previously worn by one or more strangers. In the studies by Morales and Fitzsimons (2007) the participants were reacting to a package of cookies that had touched a package of feminine napkins.

Three, seven-point uni-polar items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which someone or something is viewed as being visually pleasant. While the scale was made for describing a person, it might be used with other objects as well.

The four, seven-point items in this scale measure the degree to which a person describes an object such as a product or person as having the quality of elegance, beauty, and status. The scale was called perceptions of luxury index by Hagtvedt and Patrick (2008).

Four, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure how pleasant a stimulus is perceived to be. The stimulus evaluated by participants in the study by Bosmans (2006) was the scent in a room.