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Scale Reviews

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The scale is composed of seven-point, Likert-type statements that are intended to measure a person's attitude toward a particular advertisement.

The scale is composed of six, five-point semantic differentials assessing a person's stereotypic beliefs about people who consume alcohol.

Eight, five-point uni-polar items are used to measure a person's beliefs about the way an advertisement is visually presented with an emphasis on how novel and attractive it is. The study by Burns and Lutz (2006) focused on the types of ad formats used online, e.g., banners, pop-ups, skyscrapers, interstitials. A five-point Likert-type response format was used with the items.

The scale is composed of six, seven-point bi-polar adjectives intended to measure the extent to which a person perceives a stimulus to be aesthetically pleasing with the emphasis on its visual aspects.

A four item, seven point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a customer holds positive perceptions of a retail store's facilities, particularly with regard to interior design factors such as color scheme and organization of merchandise.

The seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a customer holds positive perceptions of a store, particularly regarding the pleasantness of its environment.

The scale has five, five point statements and measures the degree to which a person believes that smoking is acceptable and, in fact, is attractive to his/her circle of friends. Given the phrasing of items #4 and #5, the scale is most appropriate for teens. The scale was called severity of social disapproval risks by Pechmann et al. (2003).

Four, five point statements are used to measure the degree of importance a person places on being accepted by others his/her own age. Given the phrasing of several of the items, especially #3, the scale is most appropriate for use with teenagers.

Twelve bi-polar adjectives are used to measure a person's attitude toward a person. Although used by Tedesco (2002) with regard to a political candidate, the scale could also be used with other roles people play, particularly those in which some qualifications are usually viewed as necessary, e.g., spokesperson, manager, salesperson.

The scale uses semantic differentials to measure an aspect of source credibility related to beauty and classiness. The scale has been used to test the attractiveness of print ad models (Bower and Landreth 2001) and celebrity endorsers (Ohanian 1990, 1991; Till and Busler 2000). While the focus in Ohanian (1990) was on the development of a semantic differential version of the scale, Likert and Staple versions were developed as well though the exact phrasing of the items was not given in the article and are not reviewed here.