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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

attractiveness

The scale has six, seven-point semantic differentials that are intended to measure the degree to which a person views something as being visually attractive.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type statements measuring the extent to which a viewer agrees that there is a romantic attraction between two people in an advertisement. To clarify, the scale does not measure whether the viewer feels romantic while watching the ad nor whether the ad as a whole is romantic but just that it appears the two people in the ad are behaving romantically.

Four Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's opinion of the degree to which a model in a specific advertisement looks like a typical person rather than being unusual in some way (e.g., very attractive).

Three Likert-type statements are used to assess a person's opinion of the extent to which a model in an advertisement is similar to him/herself, with an emphasis on physical similarity.

The scale is composed of four, five-point items measuring the degree to which a person believes certain attributes of a celebrity are important if that person is to be an endorser in some ads. The attributes in this scale have to do with the physical attractiveness of the celebrity as well as the fit between the endorser, the product, and the target audience. The scale was called congruence by Erdogan, Baker, and Tagg (2001).

Three, seven point statements are used to measure the extent to which a person thinks a model featured in an ad is likely for viewers to compare themselves to. Bower (2001) viewed this as a form of social comparison in that one compares him- or her-self to another person on one or more personally relevant attributes to see if there is cause for concern (envy, jealousy, lower self worth).

Three, seven-point statements are used to measure a person's opinion of the relative physical attractiveness of a model (female) featured in an ad as compared to other models that are normally seen.

The full version of the scale uses twenty, five-point statements to measure a person's sense of self-esteem at a specific point in time. Thus, given the directions shown below, this is a state measure of a person's self-esteem rather than a more stable personality trait.

Seven, seven-point bi-polar adjectives are used to assess a person's evaluation of some environmental stimulus with an emphasis on affective descriptors. As used by Mattila and Wirtz (2001), the stimulus was a store's atmosphere and was called store environment.

Three Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's opinion of the degree to which a particular product has the ability to remedy some unsatisfactory aspect of one's physical appearance.