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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

believability

Seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a consumer’s skepticism about improvement claims being made about a product by the company.  A two- and three-item version are discussed.

The degree to which a person believes that advertising is trustworthy and provides truthful information about products is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.  As discussed further below, the items are phrased with respect to advertising in general but they can be easily adapted for use with particular media.

The extent to which a person not only thinks an advertisement is unbelievable, but that it is also misleading, is measured in this scale with three, nine-point semantic-differentials.

With three, nine-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how reliable and believable a consumer believes an online store to be.  Given the phrasing of one of the items, the consumer has purchased a particular product from the store.  To make the scale amenable for use with respondents who may not have purchased from the store, the item can be easily edited.

A consumer's attitude about the informativeness and believability of communications from a company is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.  While the communication activities referred to in the scale items can refer to advertising, the phrasing is broad enough to include those of a PR nature as well such as press releases.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point items that measure how credible and authentic a particular advertisement is believed to be.

A person's opinion about the accuracy and truthfulness of the ads for products that are placed within video games is measured with three, five-point Likert-type items.  As currently phrased, the statements are not specific to any particular game but rather, refer to in-game advertising in general.

A person's doubt that the regular price of a product was stated truthfully in an advertisement is measured with three, seven point Likert-type items.

The veracity of the promotion about a brand is measured in this scale with three, five-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person views an advertisement as being truthful, impartial, and persuasive is measured with six, seven-point, uni-polar items.