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Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

believability

The scale is composed of four, seven-point semantic differentials measuring a consumer's general attitude toward the advertising within a specified medium. The media studied by Elliot and Speck (1998) were television, radio, magazines, newspapers, Yellow Pages, and direct mail.

Three, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree which a person believes that advertising in general is plausible and convincing. The items are general enough so that they can refer advertising in general or to advertising on a specific medium. The scale was not, however, developed for use with a specific ad.

These four items are intended to measure the credibility of a product's manufacturer and the confidence the manufacturer appears to have in the product being advertised.

Three items are purported to measure the degree to which a consumer indicates that ads for competing brands are better in some way than the ad for the focal brand. Viewed in this way, the consumer could be viewed as expressing a "lack of resistance" to competitors' ads (Ha 1996).

The extent to which a person describes a source of information as believable is measured using three Likert-type items. The source used by Block and Keller (1995) was a pamphlet about sexually transmitted diseases and how to avoid them.

Seven, seven-point items are used to measure how positive a person's evaluation of some particular advertisement is. Most, but not all, of the items lean toward cognitive (e.g., informative) rather than affective (e.g., likable) facets of an attitude.

Five, five-point items are used to evaluate the claim portion of an advertisement. The one-word descriptors appear to measure the perceived strength of the ad's arguments.

The scale is purported to measure the perceived quality and legitimacy of the claims made in an advertisement. Although each of the uses cited here used a slightly different version of the scale, all had at least two items in common.

This five-item, five-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a consumer believes a certain discount represents a bona fide reduction in the normal price of a product.

A five-item, three-point scale is used to measure a consumer's attitude toward the advertising associated with a specified product. As scored by Maddox (1982), higher scores implied a more positive attitude, with an emphasis on the truthfulness of the advertising.