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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

blame

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure how much a person believes a particular party is at fault for an offense that occurred.

Using three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person blames a specific entity (store, company, organization) and its strategies for him/her terminating the relationship between them.

How ashamed and worthy of blame a person felt at some point in time is measured in the scale with five, seven-point uni-polar items.

A customer's belief that it is the retailer's responsibility that a product had to be returned is measured in this scale using three, seven-point items.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a customer takes responsibility for the need to return a product that has been purchased.

Three, five-point items are used to measure the degree to which a customer believes the responsibility for a particular product failure belongs with the company or with him/herself.

Three, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer places the blame for a problem that was experienced on a particular entity (person, manufacturer, service provider).  The scale is most relevant when used with regard to a a good or service.

The degree to which a consumer takes personal responsibility for an unsuccessful search episode is measured with three statements.

Three statements are used to measure the extent to which a consumer attributes the unsuccessful collection of shopping-related information to the place(s) that were visited during a particular search episode (e.g., retail stores, websites).

This scale has three statements that are used to measure the extent to which a consumer places blame for an unsuccessful search episode on other people rather than on self or employees of a store.