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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

busyness

This four-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person reports enjoyment of work in general and staying busy. This is not necessarily an indication of involvement or interest in a specific job.

This is a three-item, seven-point, Likert-type measure of the lack of time a person reports having given the things he/she generally has to do. The construct was referred to as costs of search by Srinivasan and Ratchford (1991) because of the reasoning that if a person is very busy, time for external search will be in short supply.

Several statements with a Likert-type response format are used to measure a person's lack of free time for him/herself each day. This was referred to as "My Time Oriented" by Lumpkin (1985).

The scale measures the degree to which a person expresses having time pressures due to the number of commitments and responsibilities in his/her life. The abbreviated version of the scale used by Reynolds and Beatty (1999b) was referred to as time poverty.

Three, five-point Likert-type items measure the lack of time a person perceives there to be available for doing what needs to be done in his or her life.

This five-item, six-point, Likert-type scale measures a person's desire to minimize the time spent on common activities and was referred to as time spent in everyday activities by Dickerson and Gentry (1983).