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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

challenge

The level of knowledge and personal experience a person reports having with dieting is measured in this scale using ten items with a seven-point response format.

Using six, seven-point uni-polar items, the scale measures the extent to which a person reports feeling attacked verbally in the sense of his/her image being maligned.

The level of effort and time required to complete a specified task is measured in this scale using three, seven-point semantic differentials.

With three, seven-point unipolar items, this scale measures how challenging a task or process is considered to be.

Three, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to measure how complicated a person believes a certain good or service to be, especially as it pertains to its usage.

This six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a person who has just had an extraordinary experience views it as being personally challenging and instructive.

This four-item, six-point Likert-type scale is supposed to measure the degree to which a person feels he/she has been challenged but prevailed in a situation.

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's attitude regarding the extent to which an Internet-usage task has challenged his/her abilities. The scale was called navigational challenge by Mathwick and Rigdon (2004).