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Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

children

The degree to which a parent reports communicating with a child about products and purchases is measured with seven, five-point items.

Five-point statements are used to measure the amount of support a person receives (or recalls receiving) from his or her family while growing up. The items have been used as two subscales to separately measure intangible and tangible support but the items have also been used together to measure both forms of support simultaneously.

The scale is composed of six, five-point Likert-type statements that measure the extent to which a child indicates that his/her mother tells him/her what to buy or not buy. The tone of the items is that the child believes the parent is concerned about how the child's money is used and wants to have a lot of control over the decisions.

The scale has ten, five-point statements that are used to measure how a person reports being affected by various stressful events within his or her pre-adult life, particularly involving the respondent's family.

The seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the value a person places on having a family and spending time with them.

The scale is composed of six, five-point Likert-type statements that measure the extent to which a child indicates that his/her mother takes an active interest in his/her use of money and the purchase of products. The tone of the items is positive such that the child's role is respected rather than his/her opinion being ignored or purchases are dictated.

The scale is composed of twelve, nine-point semantic differentials assessing a person's stereotypic beliefs about teenage smokers.

The scale is composed of seven, five-point Likert-type items intended to measure the extent to which a person believes that parents should control what their children watch on television. In the studies by Walsh, Laczniak, and Carlson (1998; Carlson, Laczniak, and Walsh 2001) the scale was responded to by mothers but it appears to be amenable for use with other types of respondents as well.

Nine, four-point statements are used to measure how much a child believes his/her mother controls his/her TV viewing in various specific ways.

The scale is composed of five, five-point Likert-type items intended to measure the extent to which a person believes that there is a need for an organization, independent of parties involved in marketing products, to control television programming aimed at children. As one of the items indicates, the independent organization is envisioned as being composed of parents, educators, and broadcasters; government is not specifically mentioned.  A separate scale was developed by Walsh, Laczniak, and Carlson (1998) for that.