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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

clarity

The scale has four, seven-point items that measure a consumer’s relative level of familiarity with a product category as well as a good understanding of the attributes that will provide satisfaction.

The degree to which a person believes the text at a particular website is easy to read and understand is measured with three, five-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person reports being able to “see” in his/her mind a particular object or action is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale has four, seven-point semantic differentials that are intended to measure the visual clarity and intensity of a particular advertisement.

Four questions with seven-point semantic differential responses are used to measure how well written and easy-to-understand an article was.  One of the items refers to “arguments,” referring to reasons for or against something.  Given that, the scale makes most sense to use when respondents have been exposed to information that was intended to affect their attitudes.

Five, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure how visually well-defined and vivid a stimulus appears to be.

The scale has three items and measures how easily a person reports being able to visualize an object and describe it later.

The ease of comprehending a stimulus such as a message is measured in this scale with seven, seven-point semantic differentials.  The construct is sometimes referred to as fluency.

The level of exactitude a person believes was used in a particular advertising claim is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

This semantic differential scale is intended to measure the ease and clarity with which a person has processed something, e.g., an ad, a movie, a speech.  The construct is sometimes referred to as fluency.