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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

clarity

How much a person believes that he/she has a clear role in a particular community as do the other members is measured in this scale. 

The scale uses seven items to measure how much a person believes that a particular typeface is uncommon and difficult to read.  Responses to the items are made with a seven-point Likert-type scale.

The scale has four, seven-point items that measure a consumer’s relative level of familiarity with a product category as well as a good understanding of the attributes that will provide satisfaction.

The degree to which a person believes the text at a particular website is easy to read and understand is measured with three, five-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person reports being able to “see” in his/her mind a particular object or action is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale has four, seven-point semantic differentials that are intended to measure the visual clarity and intensity of a particular advertisement.

Four questions with seven-point semantic differential responses are used to measure how well written and easy-to-understand an article was.  One of the items refers to “arguments,” referring to reasons for or against something.  Given that, the scale makes most sense to use when respondents have been exposed to information that was intended to affect their attitudes.

Five, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure how visually well-defined and vivid a stimulus appears to be.

The scale has three items and measures how easily a person reports being able to visualize an object and describe it later.

The ease of comprehending a stimulus such as a message is measured in this scale with seven, seven-point semantic differentials.  The construct is sometimes referred to as fluency.