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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

cleanliness

Three semantic differentials are used in this scale to measure how much a product appears to have been touched and is considered dirty. 

With five short phrases and a seven-point Likert-type response format, the scale measures the extent to which a customer believes a store where an order was placed appears to be convenient to use based on such things as low time and effort ordering costs. 

The degree to which a person likes a store’s interior is measured with six, seven-point Likert-type items.  The emphasis is on visual attractiveness and layout.

A seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person thinks an educational institution has grounds, buildings, equipment, and professors that are neat and clean.

This four-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person thinks a hospital, and its rooms in particular, are appealing and clean.

The importance of "quality," based on several specific attributes, is measured with seven, seven point items with respect to the selection of a store/mall at which to shop.

Four unipolar items are used to measure the degree to which a person has experienced a feeling of abhorrence because of a certain stimulus that is viewed as being physically dirty or unsanitary. In the studies conducted by Argo, Dahl, and Morales (2006), the stimulus that respondents reacted to was putting on a t-shirt that was perceived to be "contaminated" by being previously worn by one or more strangers. In the studies by Morales and Fitzsimons (2007) the participants were reacting to a package of cookies that had touched a package of feminine napkins.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type statement assessing a customer's attitude of a store with an emphasis on some visible indicators that it is being managed competently.

Six, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure the health and cleanliness-related characteristics a person associates with those who smoke. Two versions of the scale were used. One had to do with how a person thinks that smokers are perceived by others (reference group evaluations) and another focusing on how a person thinks that smokers perceive themselves (self evaluations).

The sixteen-item, five-point scale attempts to measure a customer's attitude regarding the quality of a convenience store that offers gasoline as well as food. This scale is performance rather than expectations based. Further, it is not intended to be a measure of satisfaction although it is related to it.