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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The belief that a choice one is making is self-determined rather than being externally imposed is measured in this scale with five, nine-point Likert-type items. Botti and McGill (2011) referred to the measure as personal causality.

This five-item, six-point Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person describes his/her engagement in an activity as being without coercion or obligation. The activity investigated by Unger (1981; Unger and Kernan 1983) was subjective leisure.  In the study by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006) the activity was recreational shopping.

Four, seven-point items are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that a choice he/she has made was free from coercion or pressure to select a particular option. The scale was called self-determination by Mogilner, Rudnick, and Iyengar (2008).

Four, seven-point bi-polar adjectives are used to measure a customer's attitude about a particular salesperson with the emphasis on the degree to which the salesperson was viewed as being honest rather than manipulative.

Three, seven-point descriptors are used to assess the lack of control and feeling of impotence a consumer has experienced in some situation. In the study by Babin, Boles, and Darden (1995), the stimulus that respondents were reacting to was a car salesperson.