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coercion

The belief that a choice one is making is self-determined rather than being externally imposed is measured in this scale with five, nine-point Likert-type items. Botti and McGill (2011) referred to the measure as personal causality.

This five-item, six-point Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person describes his/her engagement in an activity as being without coercion or obligation. The activity investigated by Unger (1981; Unger and Kernan 1983) was subjective leisure.  In the study by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006) the activity was recreational shopping.

Four, seven-point items are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that a choice he/she has made was free from coercion or pressure to select a particular option. The scale was called self-determination by Mogilner, Rudnick, and Iyengar (2008).

Four, seven-point bi-polar adjectives are used to measure a customer's attitude about a particular salesperson with the emphasis on the degree to which the salesperson was viewed as being honest rather than manipulative.

Three, seven-point descriptors are used to assess the lack of control and feeling of impotence a consumer has experienced in some situation. In the study by Babin, Boles, and Darden (1995), the stimulus that respondents were reacting to was a car salesperson.