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Testimonial

Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA

color

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person’s overall attitude toward a particular color (unspecified in the sentences themselves).

A three-item, seven-point summated ratings scale measuring the level of picture quality a consumer expects in a particular camera. Expectations are supposed to be distinct from desires because the latter relates to beliefs about ''ideal'' product performance that led to achievement of higher-level values whereas the former are beliefs about performance benefits that will occur with a specified focal brand but may be short of what is ''ideal'' (Spreng and Olshavsky 1993, p. 172). Thus, desires imply a higher standard than do expectations.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of picture quality a consumer would like in a camera. The desire construct is supposed to be distinct from expectations because the former relates to beliefs about ''ideal'' product performance that lead to achievement of higher-level values whereas the latter are beliefs about performance benefits that will occur with a specified focal brand but may be short of what is ''ideal'' (Spreng and Olshavsky 1993, p. 172). Thus, desires imply higher standards than expectations.

A four item, seven point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a customer holds positive perceptions of a retail store's facilities, particularly with regard to interior design factors such as color scheme and organization of merchandise.

Sixteen, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure the clarity of mental images a person evokes. The scale measures a person's general visual imagery ability rather than the clarity of a particular stimulus under investigation. The scale has been referred to by several users as the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (e.g., Childers 1985; Marks 1973).

A 12-item, three-point summated ratings scale is used to measure a person's ability to control optical memory images. The full formal title for the scale is the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control.