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Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

color

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person’s overall attitude toward a particular color (unspecified in the sentences themselves).

A three-item, seven-point summated ratings scale measuring the level of picture quality a consumer expects in a particular camera. Expectations are supposed to be distinct from desires because the latter relates to beliefs about ''ideal'' product performance that led to achievement of higher-level values whereas the former are beliefs about performance benefits that will occur with a specified focal brand but may be short of what is ''ideal'' (Spreng and Olshavsky 1993, p. 172). Thus, desires imply a higher standard than do expectations.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of disconfirmation in beliefs a consumer has toward a particular camera. Disconfirmation refers to the results of the comparison made between expected product performance and actual performance.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of picture quality a consumer would like in a camera. The desire construct is supposed to be distinct from expectations because the former relates to beliefs about ''ideal'' product performance that lead to achievement of higher-level values whereas the latter are beliefs about performance benefits that will occur with a specified focal brand but may be short of what is ''ideal'' (Spreng and Olshavsky 1993, p. 172). Thus, desires imply higher standards than expectations.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of similarity in beliefs a consumer has toward a particular camera. Desires congruency refers to the result of the comparison made by a consumer of his/her desire for ''ideal'' product performance and the perceived actual performance of some focal brand.

A four item, seven point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a customer holds positive perceptions of a retail store's facilities, particularly with regard to interior design factors such as color scheme and organization of merchandise.

Sixteen, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure the clarity of mental images a person evokes. The scale measures a person's general visual imagery ability rather than the clarity of a particular stimulus under investigation. The scale has been referred to by several users as the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (e.g., Childers 1985; Marks 1973).

A 12-item, three-point summated ratings scale is used to measure a person's ability to control optical memory images. The full formal title for the scale is the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control.