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Scale Reviews

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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


The tendency to compare one's self to others is measured in this scale with eleven, five-point Likert-type items.

The perceived size of a person's body is measured in this scale using three, seven-point semantic differentials.  Given the phrasing of one of the items, the description is relative in that the body being described is compared to another body such as the respondent's.

Three, seven-point items are used to measure a consumer's beliefs about how often he/she has put products in an online shopping cart to help make the purchase decision.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's relative attitude toward two versions of a product that differ in their targets: one made for a global market and the other made for the local market.

Using four, seven-point items, this scale measures a consumer's ability to explain the reasons why a particular brand or type of product is preferred.

With five, seven-point items, this scale measures the degree to which a consumer believes a customized version of a product is better in various ways compared to the standard version.  The scale was called delta benefit by Franke, Keinz, and Steger (2009), referring to the increase in benefits that occurs when a product is changed to be more like the customer desires.

This three item, seven-point scale measures a consumer's ease of making purchases within a product category because of his/her established, prepurchase preference.

The degree to which an object is perceived to be representative of a category of objects is measured in this scale with semantic differentials. A three-item, 11-point version of the scale was used by both Loken and Ward (1990) and Ward, Bitner, and Barnes (1992). Loken and John (1993) used a four-item, seven-point version of the scale.

Four, seven-point items are used to measure the perceived additional value of buying two particular products in a set compared with purchasing them separately. Yadav and Monroe (1993) referred to the measure as bundling transaction value.

This three-item, seven-point scale measures the degree to which personal tastes and partiality for a product are believed to vary across consumers. According to Feick and Higie (1992), this variance in preference may be due to ''different attribute weightings across consumers or to different ideal levels of particular attributes'' (p. 10).