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comparison

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of disconfirmation in beliefs a consumer has toward a particular camera. Disconfirmation refers to the results of the comparison made between expected product performance and actual performance.

A three-item scale is used to measure the relative preference a consumer has between two competing brands of a product.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point Likert-type statements intended to measure the tendency to compare one's self to people in ads or to friends as a way to determine how to look.

Five, five-point Likert-type items are used in this scale to measure the extent to which a consumer shops for low prices by comparing the deals available at stores at the same point in time. Gauri, Sudhir, and Talukdar (2008) referred to this scale as spatial price search propensity to distinguish it from a companion scale they developed and called temporal price search propensity.

Four, seven-point items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a consumer would be motivated to seek a refund from a store if it is learned that a product he/she bought there was cheaper elsewhere. The scale was called willingness to claim refund by Kukar-Kinney and Grewal (2007).

A person's assessment of a product's quality as compared to the quality of referent products of the same category is measured with three, nine-point Likert-type items.

This scale has four, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person is aware of other brands in a product category and believes that at least one of them is as good if not better than a particular brand.

Four items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that the prices for products charged at a particular store are generally higher than its competitors. Kukar-Kinney and Grewal (2007) used a seven-point response scale with the items whereas Kukar-Kinney, Walters, and MacKenzie (2007) used a nine-point format.

Likert-type statements are used to measure the level of knowledge a consumer expresses having about a product category compared to his/her friends.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that an endorser is similar to him/herself.