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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


Three, seven-point items are used to measure a consumer's beliefs about how often he/she has put products in an online shopping cart to help make the purchase decision.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's relative attitude toward two versions of a product that differ in their targets: one made for a global market and the other made for the local market.

Using four, seven-point items, this scale measures a consumer's ability to explain the reasons why a particular brand or type of product is preferred.

With five, seven-point items, this scale measures the degree to which a consumer believes a customized version of a product is better in various ways compared to the standard version.  The scale was called delta benefit by Franke, Keinz, and Steger (2009), referring to the increase in benefits that occurs when a product is changed to be more like the customer desires.

This three item, seven-point scale measures a consumer's ease of making purchases within a product category because of his/her established, prepurchase preference.

Four, seven-point items are used to measure the perceived additional value of buying two particular products in a set compared with purchasing them separately. Yadav and Monroe (1993) referred to the measure as bundling transaction value.

The degree to which an object is perceived to be representative of a category of objects is measured in this scale with semantic differentials. A three-item, 11-point version of the scale was used by both Loken and Ward (1990) and Ward, Bitner, and Barnes (1992). Loken and John (1993) used a four-item, seven-point version of the scale.

This four-item, seven-point scale is used to measure a person's perception of the performance quality of a product compared with other brands in its product class. The authors viewed performance as having two dimensions: breakdown and non-breakdown related (Boulding and Kirmani 1993). This scale was used to measure the latter dimension.

This three-item, seven-point scale measures the degree to which personal tastes and partiality for a product are believed to vary across consumers. According to Feick and Higie (1992), this variance in preference may be due to ''different attribute weightings across consumers or to different ideal levels of particular attributes'' (p. 10).

Four, seven-point Likert-type items measure a consumer's reported knowledge of brands in a specified product category as well as the important criteria to use in making a selection.