You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA


Likert-type statements are used to measure the level of knowledge a consumer expresses having about a product category compared to his/her friends.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that an endorser is similar to him/herself.

This scale uses four, eleven-point bi-polar adjectives to measure the degree of detail and clarity with which a comparison has been made. In the study by Chow and Luk (2006), the comparison was between products in an ad. Given that, the authors referred to the scale as CAI (comparative advertisement intensity).

This is a three item, five-point Likert-type scale that measures the degree to which a person wants to have a lot of product-related information before making a purchase decision and is willing to expend the requisite effort to gather the desired information.

Seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that an ad has disparaged a competitor.

Five, nine-point Likert-type items are used in this scale to measure the choice difficulty and level of time/effort expended during a recent purchase decision. The scale was referred to as evaluation costs by Heitmann, Lehmann, and Herrmann (2007).

The three item, nine-point Likert-type scale measures the relative ease a consumer experienced in selecting one product from among several and confidence that the decision could be explained to someone who questioned it. The scale was called justifiability by Heitmann, Lehmann, and Herrmann (2007).

The purpose of this three item, seven-point scale is to measure the degree to which a person noticed there being differences among alternatives he/she was exposed to. The scale was called familiarity by Mogilner, Rudnick, and Iyengar (2008).

The scale is composed of three statements that measure how much a person believes an advertisement provides information that is useful in making a brand decision.

The degree to which a person spends time gathering information from ads, friends, and personal experience to better select between competing e-retail websites is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type statements. The scale was referred to as search by Srinivasan, Anderson, and Ponnavolu (2002).