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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

competition

The rivalry with same-sex others over access to mates is measured with seven, seven-point Likert-type items.

This five-item, seven-point Likert scale measures a person’s belief that his/her self-worth is based on performing better than others on a task or skill.

The extent to which a person says he/she will be excited about a particular sports team beating another team it is playing against and the likelihood he/she will engage in behaviors to express support for the team during the event is measured with four, nine-point items.  The scale items are flexible for sporting events which have two teams playing against each other or when the researcher’s desire is to focus only on two of several teams in a multi-team event such as the Olympics.

Using three, seven-point items, the scale measures the extent to which a person believes the rivalry between two teams is intensified because of the game in which they are pitted against each other.  The scale is most suitable for sporting events which have two teams playing against each other or when the researcher’s desire is to focus participants’ attention on two of several teams in a multi-team event such as the Olympics.

With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures whether a person has a habitual mental attitude in which self-distinctiveness is emphasized or, at the other extreme, an integration mindset in which assimilation and cooperation are emphasized.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that a store offers good quality that is better than the competing stores.

This three item, eleven-point Likert-type is intended to measure how stimulated and competitive a person felt when bidding against other people in a particular auction.

Three, eleven point Likert-type items are used to measure the importance a person placed on winning a particular auction he/she was involved in with other bidders.

The degree to which a person believes that, in general, one person’s good outcomes come at the expense of another person is measured with six, 10-point Likert-type items.

Three, nine-point semantic differentials along with a scale stem measure a person’s attitude about a focal brand compared to a referent brand within a stated product category.