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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


The extent to which an object is considered to be powerful and aggressive is measured with three, seven-point items.

Four statements are used to measure the extent to which a customer in a retail establishment near the time it is set to close courteously interacted with employees as they engaged in behaviors related to closing the store.

One's feeling that someone (unnamed) was trying to influence his/her evaluation in a particular situation is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.  To be clear, it is not just that the person feels that there was an attempt to influence him/her but that there was pressure to give a certain evaluation.

This scale used three Likert-type items to measure a customer's understanding and willingness to cooperate with changes or requests made by an organization.

This four-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used for measuring the belief that if a new product were purchased it would be noticed by a reference group important to the consumer.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a person believes that a certain product is "public" in the sense that if he/she were to purchase and use it others would be aware of it. DelVecchio and Smith (2005) referred to the scale as social risk - evaluation by others.

Using three, seven-point Likert-type statements, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes important referent people expect him/her to use a product. Nysveen, Pederson and Thorbjørnsen (2005) used the scale with services but it appears to be amenable for use with goods as well.

The scale is composed of thirteen, six-point statements measuring the degree to which a person looks to others to determine how to behave and desires to act in accordance with group norms. This measure was called Attention to Social Comparison Information (ATSCI) by Lennox and Wolfe (1984). A three-item variation of the scale was created by Ailawadi, Neslin, and Gedenk (2001).

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are intended to measure the degree to which a behavior is expected of someone and is part of the social norms within which that person operates. The behaviors compared by Houston and Walker (1996) were the sending of different types of greeting cards.

This is a 15-item, Likert-type scale purported to measure a consumer's expressed tendency to stand up for his/her rights with marketers and their representatives. The scale covers three interaction situations: resisting requests for compliance, requesting information or assistance, and seeking redress. An 11-item version of the scale translated into Dutch was used by Richins (1987).