You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


The belief that one’s parent(s) firmly directed the children while they were growing up and expected unquestioning obedience is measured with ten Likert items.

With six, nine-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s general attitude that society should have well-defined rules (social norms and laws) and that punishment is appropriate when rules are not adhered to.  WARNING: The article in which this scale was reported has been retracted by the second author due to anomilies in the data and analyses [Journal of Consumer Research (2020), 47 (4), 632]. The extent to which the anomilies affected this scale is unknown.

One's feeling that someone (unnamed) was trying to influence his/her evaluation in a particular situation is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.  To be clear, it is not just that the person feels that there was an attempt to influence him/her but that there was pressure to give a certain evaluation.

The scale measures the degree to which a person either believes that people should give priority to what is best for the group or, at the other extreme, that individual goals and needs are more important than those of the group.  Six, five-point Likert-type items compose the scale.

The acceptable level of power disparity among people in a society is measured in this scale with eight, seven-point Likert-type items.  The scale does not measure a person's power nor the power inequality of a culture per se but rather a person's attitude about power disparity.

The scale has three, five-point items that measure a shopper's motivation to purchase in stores that feature pre-owned goods due to the desire to avoid buying from the typical businesses where most consumers shop.  The scale was called distance from the system by Guiot and Roux (2010).

This scale has four, seven-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person accepts differences in the power wielded by various members in a social group.

A 30-item true-false scale is used to measure the extent to which a person expects to be evaluated negatively by others and avoids evaluative situations. A person scoring high on this scale should not necessarily be assumed to have a negative self-image. The measure was referred to as Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) by the originators (Watson and Friend 1969) as well as Bearden and Rose (1990).

Three, five point statements are used to measure the degree to which a person expresses the possibility of smoking, even a little bit, in the unspecified future.

Four, five point statements are used to measure the degree of importance a person places on being accepted by others his/her own age. Given the phrasing of several of the items, especially #3, the scale is most appropriate for use with teenagers.