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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

confusion

The scale uses five, seven-point Likert-type items to measure how much a person who used a mobile app to perform a financial transaction believes it did not process correctly.

The clarity with which a person understands what a particular company does with the data it has on its customers is measured with four, seven-point semantic-differentials.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a shopper believes that a store’s layout and arrangement of shelves make it difficult to find desired products.

The degree of difficulty a person expresses in choosing one brand from among several in a product category is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.

The extent to which a customer believes that a store carries too many options within a product category of interest is measured in this scale using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

This three item, seven point scale measures the extent to which a person had difficulty distinguishing product relevant information from background graphics in a particular advertisement. As written, the scale is most suited for a print ad.

Four questions with seven-point semantic differential responses are used to measure how well written and easy-to-understand an article was.  One of the items refers to “arguments,” referring to reasons for or against something.  Given that, the scale makes most sense to use when respondents have been exposed to information that was intended to affect their attitudes.

This scale uses four, seven-point items to measure the degree to which a person believes that an e-mail message he/she has received from a company is annoying and confusing.

The degree to which a person was easily able to understand the meaning of an ad which had an unexpected aspect to it is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The ease of comprehending a stimulus such as a message is measured in this scale with seven, seven-point semantic differentials.  The construct is sometimes referred to as fluency.