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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

congruence

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes an object or experience is closely associated with his/her identity.

The degree to which a person thinks that an object, such as a product, expresses his/her personal uniqueness is measured with three, seven-point Likert items.

The degree to which a sponsoring entity and a sponsee are viewed as fitting together well is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.  (A sponsee is the entity being sponsored, such as an event, an organization, or a cause.)

How much a person feels close to and identifies with other customers of a particular company is measured with four, five-point items.

Using three, seven-point uni-polar items, the scale measures how much a person believes one brand is closely related in some way to another brand.  In particular, the scale and its corresponding stem (question) were developed for use when comparing the fit between a brand associated with a product and a brand name associated with a charity.

The scale uses three, seven-point semantic differentials to measure how well two objects are considered to fit each other and be compatible.

How similar a person believes he/she is compared to another person is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure how well organized and easy to understand an ad is which a person has seen.

The degree to which a consumer believes that using a particular product would be consistent with his/her values is measured with three, five-point Likert-type items.  

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type items to measure to what degree one person considers another person to be similar to him/herself, particularly in terms of behavior.