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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

congruence

The degree to which a consumer believes that using a particular product would be consistent with his/her values is measured with three, five-point Likert-type items.  

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type items to measure to what degree one person considers another person to be similar to him/herself, particularly in terms of behavior.

The scale measures the degree to which a person believes that he/she can relate to a particular set of employees because they are similar to him/her in some (unstated) way.  There are two versions of the scale: one with three statements and one with five.

The degree to which a person believes that a set of employees work together well and stand for similar things is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

How much a person believes that a particular set of employees share a common physical appearance is measured with three items.  The statements are phrased generally and do not specify what attributes appear to be similar.

With six, nine-point bi-polar adjectives, the scale measures the degree to which an object appears to be unusual and unexpected.  Given the multiple facets of the construct represented in the items and depending on the way the items are scored, the scale could be considered a measure of similarity, typicality, or novelty.  The scale is general in the sense that it could be used with a variety of objects and in a variety of contexts.  

The scale is composed of four, seven-point items that measure a person’s belief that a specified entity (person, cause, organization) being sponsored for some unstated reason is similar in its goals and image to the specified sponsor.

The scale has six, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person’s identification with a place, such as a retail establishment.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a consumer’s general belief that brand name products in a certain product category are essentially the same as those brands owned by the store.  (How they are viewed as “the same” is not stated in the items.)

The degree to which a person was easily able to understand the meaning of an ad which had an unexpected aspect to it is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.