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congruence

A person's inconsistent attitude toward an object is measured in this scale using five, seven-point Likert-type items.  Chang (2011) used various versions of the scale to measure two constructs: ambivalence toward "green" products and ambivalence toward buying "green" products.

The tendency for a person's emotions to be adjusted, possibly subconsciously, to match those of another person is measured in this scale with eight, seven-point Likert-type items.

The amount of similarity between one's self and a person in a story is measured in this scale using three, seven-point items.

Five, 11-point items are used in this scale to measure the cognitive and emotional bonds between a brand and a consumer.

The extent to which a consumer views a particular brand as being indicative of one's self is measured in this scale with four Likert-type statements.  The scale was called brand signaling by Park and John (2010).

Four, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent that one expresses positive beliefs and affect toward TV commercials, particularly as it helps a user of a product feel connected to it.

This is a three-item, five-point scale assessing a person's experience with the surprise-related emotion. The directions and response scale can be worded so as to measure the intensity of the emotional state at the present time or they can be adjusted to measure the frequency with which a person has experienced the emotion during some specified time period. One-word items were used in the study by Westbrook and Oliver (1991) and phrases based on those same items were used by Allen, Machleit, and Kleine (1992).

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of similarity in beliefs a consumer has toward a particular camera. Desires congruency refers to the result of the comparison made by a consumer of his/her desire for ''ideal'' product performance and the perceived actual performance of some focal brand.

The scale is composed of four, five-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a customer believes that a certain service provider and its customers match his/her self-concept.

The scale is composed of seven, seven-point statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a person wants to avoid being identified with a certain brand. The scale was called private self-disidentification by White and Dahl (2007).