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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

congruence

Four Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that a product that is advertised within a video game is related in some way to the nature of the game. The items in the current version of the scale were developed for use with a racing game and will need to be modified somewhat for use with other types of games.

The scale is composed of seven, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure the perceived level of similarity and fit between brands from two different companies.

The seven item, seven-point semantic differential scale measures the degree to which a person views two entities as being congruent. In the case of Becker-Olson (2003), the scale was used to measure how well a company is representative of a certain industry. In contrast, Simmons and Becker-Olsen (2006) assessed the fit between a firm and a charitable cause.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that an endorser is similar to him/herself.

Seven-point, Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person perceives there to be a relationship between an endorser and a product, such that the pairing of the two is viewed as a "good fit." This measure was referred to as relatedness by Sengupta, Goodstein, and Boninger (1997).

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person's motivation for giving a certain amount of money or time to a cause is a reflection of who he/she is inside rather than being externally-driven.

The degree to which a person identifies with a brand by viewing it as fitting one's personality and lifestyle is measured using five, seven-point Likert-type statements. The scale was called brand equity by Johnson, Herrmann, and Huber (2006).

Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that there is a similarity between a brand's image and his/her own image. Swaminathan, Page, and Gürhan-Canli (2007) referred to the scale as self-concept connection.

The scale is composed of seven Likert-type statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a consumer views there being a similarity and connection between him/her self-image and that of a particular brand.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point items that measure the degree to which a person believes that a product is consistent with his/her values, experiences, and needs. While the scale was developed to be used with innovations, it appears to be amenable for use with a wide variety of goods and services, regardless of how innovative they are viewed as being.