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Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

congruence

The scale attempts to assess the degree to which a consumer views a brand as having personality-like characteristics typified by the following facets: daring, spirited, imaginative, and up-to-date.

The scale attempts to assess the degree to which a consumer views a brand as having personality-like characteristics typified by facets such as being down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, and cheerful.

Five, five-point unipolar items are used to measure the degree to which a person describes a brand as being responsible and trustworthy.

The degree to which a consumer views a brand as having personality-like characteristics typified by good looks and charm was measured in the original version of the scale with six items and a five-point response format.  A three item version was used by Venable et al. (2005) with regard to brand personality for the nonprofit context.

The scale measures the degree to which a consumer views a brand as having personality-like characteristics typified by toughness and masculinity. The original scale was composed of five items with a five-point response format.  A four item version was used by Venable et al. (2005) with regard to brand personality for the nonprofit context.

Six statements with seven-point Likert-type response formats are used to measure the value-expressive functional base of a product-related attitude. This function has to do with a product facilitating one's expression of central values and self-identity to others.

The scale is composed of four, five-point Likert-type statements measuring the degree to which a person views a product (generic) or brand (specific) as helping to achieve desirable outcomes and life goals. The underlying construct has been alternatively referred to as the approach goal (Carver and Scheier 1990) or a promotion focus (Higgins 1997).

The scale is composed of four, five-point items measuring the degree to which a person believes certain attributes of a celebrity are important if that person is to be an endorser in some ads. The attributes in this scale have to do with the physical attractiveness of the celebrity as well as the fit between the endorser, the product, and the target audience. The scale was called congruence by Erdogan, Baker, and Tagg (2001).

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert type statements measuring the subjective likelihood that if a certain company supported a particular event then it would improve the chances that a consumer would attend to and remember the sponsor's promotion. The events examined by Speed and Thompson (2000) were related to sports.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert type statements measuring how likely a particular company is viewed as being a sponsor of a variety of major sporting events. "Ubiquity" implies that the sponsor seems to be everywhere, visibly associated with lots of top sporting events.