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The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that using a mobile device for purchases and financial activities (banking, investments) is an efficient use of time compared to other means of doing it.

The tendency for a consumer "to buy spontaneously, unreflectively, immediately, and kinetically" (Rook and Fisher 1995, p. 306) is measured in this scale using nine, five-point Likert-type items. The construct is viewed as a consumer trait that may produce frequent motivations to buy, even though they are not always acted on.

This seven-point scale is intended to assess a person's tendency to act impulsively with the emphasis being on one's lack of self-control.

The scale has six statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a person expresses an aversion to engaging in indulgent activities and regret for missing the enjoyment those activities might have brought.

Nine, five-point Likert-type items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person expresses the desire to consume food impetuously, without much thinking or concern for the consequences


This five-item, six-point Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person describes his/her engagement in an activity as being without coercion or obligation. The activity investigated by Unger (1981; Unger and Kernan 1983) was subjective leisure.  In the study by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006) the activity was recreational shopping.

The scale is composed of six, seven-point semantic differentials that measure a person's beliefs regarding the strength and self-reliance of someone.

This scale has four, nine-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that during a recent experience he/she was free to express his/her creativity.

Three, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to assess a customer's attitude regarding the extent to which an event that occurred was within the purview of what a specified person or organization could control. The main application of the scale would be to determine the extent to which a customer who has had a bad experience believes a person or organization in charge of a service could have prevented the problem.

Four, seven-point items are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that a choice he/she has made was free from coercion or pressure to select a particular option. The scale was called self-determination by Mogilner, Rudnick, and Iyengar (2008).