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Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

control

Three items with a seven-point Likert-type response format are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person reports feeling in control of some object or activity.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a person feels his/her activities are self-chosen and free to be whatever he/she wishes, with an emphasis on the relationship with a named person. Although some might view the scale as a measure of the need for autonomy, a close reading of the items shows in aggregate that they have more to do with the extent to which a person feels autonomous rather than the level of his/her need for it.

The degree to which a person attributes success to his/her own efforts versus fate or other forces is measured in this scale with ten forced-choice items. The Valecha (1972) version of the scale asks respondents not only to choose between items in each pair but also to indicate how close the choice is to their own true opinions.

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's attitude regarding the extent of control he/she had over a particular Internet-related task. The scale was called decisional control by Mathwick and Rigdon (2004).

Four, seven point Likert-type statements are used to measure a consumer's belief that he/she has the ability and opportunity to significantly affect the shopping process, particularly in terms of the value received for the money spent.

Four, nine-point statements are used to measure the value placed by a person on self-restraint and self-transcendence in order to minimize social disruption.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the knowledge-related functional base of a person's attitude toward a certain product. This function has to do with helping one to organize large amounts of information and assist in decision-making.

The scale is composed of five, five-point Likert-type items intended to measure the extent to which a person believes that there is a need for an organization, independent of parties involved in marketing products, to control television programming aimed at children. As one of the items indicates, the independent organization is envisioned as being composed of parents, educators, and broadcasters; government is not specifically mentioned.  A separate scale was developed by Walsh, Laczniak, and Carlson (1998) for that.

Nine, four-point statements are used to measure how much a child believes his/her mother controls his/her TV viewing in various specific ways.

The scale is composed of three, five-point items measuring the degree to which a parent reports actively controlling when, what, and how much television a child is allowed to watch.