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Scale Reviews

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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


This set of scales use bi-polar adjectives designed to capture a consumer's overall evaluation of a specified advertiser. As used by Rifon et al. (2004), the scale measured attitude toward the sponsor of a website.

Seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree of trust a person has in a person or organization.

The scale is composed of four, five-point Likert-type statements that attempt to assess a person's attitude toward a company with an emphasis on the degree to which the company is considered trustworthy.

This well-known scale is intended to measure the degree to which people describe themselves in socially acceptable terms in order to gain the approval of others. The original version scale of the scale has thirty-three items and uses a True/False response format. However, abbreviated versions have typically been used in marketing research and Likert-type response scales have been applied in some cases.

Six, five point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a customer believes a service provider is trustworthy and caring based on a recent encounter. Hausman (2004) used the scale in the patient-physician context and referred it as Social Aspects of Professional Service.

Ten, seven-point items are used to measure a customer's level of satisfaction with several aspects of a relationship with a dealership where he/she has purchased a car.

Semantic differentials are used in this scale to measure the extent to which some specific product information to which a consumer has been exposed is viewed as being convincing and powerful. If using instructions similar to Gürhan-Canli and Maheswaran (2000), the respondent's attention can be focused on something specific in the information, e.g., message arguments related to the product. In the study by Pham and Avnet (2004), the directions apparently asked respondents about the strength of the claim made in an ad.

The four item, Likert-type scale measures the credibility of a company or advertiser with an emphasis on the degree to which its claims are believed to be true.

The scale uses semantic differentials to measure an aspect of source credibility related to beauty and classiness. The scale has been used to test the attractiveness of print ad models (Bower and Landreth 2001) and celebrity endorsers (Ohanian 1990, 1991; Till and Busler 2000). While the focus in Ohanian (1990) was on the development of a semantic differential version of the scale, Likert and Staple versions were developed as well though the exact phrasing of the items was not given in the article and are not reviewed here.

Three, seven-point statements are used to measure the degree to which a person views an advertisement as being believable and realistic.