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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

credibility

Four, Likert-type statements are used to measure the credibility of an advertiser/company with an emphasis on his/her experience and skill.

This semantic differential scale measures a component of source credibility relating primarily to honesty and sincerity. It has been one of the most popular scales used in scholarly advertising research. 

The following applications of the scale (or parts of it) have been made: credibility of a nutrition claim in an ad (Andrews, Netemeyer, and Burton 1998; Andrews 2001; Andrews, Burton and Netemeyer 2001; Kozup, Creyer, and Burton 2003); credibility of merchant supplied price information (Lichtenstein and Bearden 1989); credibility of a store's ad (Bobinski, Cox, and Cox 1996); the trustworthiness of a company (Goldsmith, Lafferty and Newell 2001; MacKenzie and Lutz 1989); a website's reputation (Shamdasani, Stanaland, and Tan 2001); the credibility of a website's sponsor (Rifon et al. 2004); the trustworthiness of print ad models (Bower and Landreth 2001); trustworthiness of noncelebrity product endorsers (Moore, Mowen, and Reardon 1994); and, credibility of celebrity endorsers (Ohanian 1990, 1991; Till and Busler 2000; Tripp, Jensen, and Carlson 1994).

Multiple bi-polar adjectives are used to measure a dimension of credibility related to a source's perceived skill and knowledge. The following applications of the scale (or parts of it) have been made: the expertise of a company (Goldsmith, Lafferty and Newell 2001); a website's reputation (Shamdasani, Stanaland, and Tan 2001); expertise of print ad models (Bower and Landreth 2001); and, credibility of celebrity endorsers (Ohanian 1990, 1991; Till and Busler 2000).

Seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the extent to which some specific information to which a consumer has been exposed is viewed as being true and acceptable. If using instructions similar to Gürhan-Canli and Maheswaran (2000), the respondent's attention can be focused on something specific in the information, e.g., a claim made about the product.

Five, five-point bi-polar adjectives are used to measure a person's attitude toward the individual featured in an ad. This person might be a celebrity or an average person endorsing the product. Martin, Lee, and Yang (2004) referred to the scale as attitude toward the model.

The scale is composed of seven-point semantic differentials that measure a person's attitude toward a specific political advertisement he/she has been exposed to.

The seven item, seven point semantic differential scale measures a person's evaluation of a written stimulus. The stimulus used by Menon, Block, and Ramanathan (2002) was an article but the scale appears to be appropriate for other stimuli such as books, pamphlets, web pages, etc. that have some sort of threat aspect that would make the information potentially "scary."

The scale is composed of ten, seven-point, bi-polar adjectives measuring a person's attitude about a specific advertisement with an emphasis on the credibility and likelihood of it being true. An abbreviated, three-item version of the scale was used by Kukar-Kinney and Walters (2003).

The six item, seven-point Likert-type scale seems to measure a person's reaction to an ad he/she has been exposed to.

Three Likert-type statements are used to assess a person's opinion of the extent to which a model in an advertisement is similar to him/herself, with an emphasis on physical similarity.