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Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

cross-cultural

The degree to which a brand is viewed as being associated with a country other than one's own country is measured in this scale using four, seven-point semantic differentials.

The five, five-point Likert-type items composing the scale are intended to measure to degree to which a person has a broad, open perspective of the world and an eagerness to experience other cultures.

A person’s attitude toward the appropriateness of purchasing American-made products versus those manufactured in other countries is measured using a seventeen-item, seven-point Likert-type scale. The scale was called CETSCALE (consumers' ethnocentric tendencies) by its creators, Shimp and Sharma 1987. The scale has been used in a variety of languages and countries. A ten-item version of the scale has been used in some studies and a revised version of the scale was used by Herche (1992).

This scale is used to measure a person's evaluation of some distribution- and advertising-related aspects of products made in another country. The final version of the scale used in the analysis of German products had four items, whereas the version used for Korean products had three. This scale was referred to as General Product Attributes (promotional/distributional image) by Parameswaran and Pisharodi (1994).

A five-item, ten-point summated scale is used to measure a person's evaluation of some undesirable aspects of products made in another country. This scale was referred to as General Product Attribute (negative) by Parameswaran and Pisharodi (1994).

A person's evaluation of some positive aspects of products made in another country are measured using this ten-point scale. The final versions of the scale used in the analysis of German and Korean products had three items, but only two of the items were the same. This scale was referred to as General Product Attributes (positive attributes relating to product image) by Parameswaran and Pisharodi (1994).

A person's attitude toward the people of another country in which a product has been produced is measured using a ten-point scale. The final version of the scale used in the analysis of German products had five items whereas the version used for Korean products had six. This scale was referred to as General Country Attribute (the people facet) by Parameswaran and Pisharodi (1994).

A person's perception of the similarity between his or her own country and the one in which a product has been produced is measured with a three-item, ten-point scale. This scale was referred to as General Country Attribute (the interaction facet) by Parameswaran and Pisharodi (1994).