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Scale Reviews

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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

crowded

Composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a person believes that there were too many customers in a store.

The belief that one’s personal space would be restricted if one were in a particular physical environment is measured in this scale with three Likert-type items. 

The scale measures how much a shopper believes that a store’s layout and shelving do not provide customers with enough space.  Three, seven-point Likert-type items compose the measure.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel crowded in a particular setting. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.

A six-item, seven-point semantic differential is used to measure the level of crowding a consumer perceives there to be in some specified shopping context. The measure was referred to as perceived retail crowding by Eroglu and Machleit (1990).

The seven-point semantic differential scale measures the perceived density of people in an area of space. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.