You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now

Testimonial

Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA

crowded

Composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a person believes that there were too many customers in a store.

The belief that one’s personal space would be restricted if one were in a particular physical environment is measured in this scale with three Likert-type items. 

The scale measures how much a shopper believes that a store’s layout and shelving do not provide customers with enough space.  Three, seven-point Likert-type items compose the measure.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel crowded in a particular setting. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.

A six-item, seven-point semantic differential is used to measure the level of crowding a consumer perceives there to be in some specified shopping context. The measure was referred to as perceived retail crowding by Eroglu and Machleit (1990).

The seven-point semantic differential scale measures the perceived density of people in an area of space. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.