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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

crowded

Composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a person believes that there were too many customers in a store.

The belief that one’s personal space would be restricted if one were in a particular physical environment is measured in this scale with three Likert-type items. 

The scale measures how much a shopper believes that a store’s layout and shelving do not provide customers with enough space.  Three, seven-point Likert-type items compose the measure.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel crowded in a particular setting. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.

A six-item, seven-point semantic differential is used to measure the level of crowding a consumer perceives there to be in some specified shopping context. The measure was referred to as perceived retail crowding by Eroglu and Machleit (1990).

The seven-point semantic differential scale measures the perceived density of people in an area of space. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.