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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


A seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the concern a consumer has for paying low prices contingent on some product quality expectations.

Three statements are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that a certain store uses a form of sales promotion that is insincere and that misleads customers.

This five-item, seven-point Likert-type measure assesses a consumer's reported adeptness at and enjoyment of bargaining.

This is a three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale that assesses the degree to which a consumer believes that a sale price is a true decrease in the normal price of a product rather than being the price typically charged by a retailer. The scale was referred to by Lichtenstein, Burton, and Karson (1991) as cue consistency.

The scale is composed of four statements with a seven-point Likert-type response format which are intended to measure the degree to which a person is certain that the price stated in an advertisement for a product at a certain store is the lowest one available.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure a consumer's attitude toward the price of a product with an emphasis on the extent to which it is viewed as a good deal.

A consumer's attitude about a particular price-deal he/she has been exposed to is measured with Likert-type measures in this scale.

The four item scale measures the degree that a customer believes that a particular service provider will provide him/her with a good deal and preferential treatment.

This five-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures a consumer's willingness to spend the time and energy necessary to shop around if need be to purchase grocery products at the lowest price. A four-item version was used by Manning, Sprott, and Miyazaki (1998) and a six-item version was used by Ofir (2004).

Eight, seven-point Likert-type items measure a consumer's enjoyment of sales promotion deals and tendency to buy products associated with such offers. This measures a general tendency rather than the likelihood that the behavior occurs for any particular product category. Burton et al. (1998) and Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton (1995) referred the scale as general deal proneness while Garretson, Fisher, and Burton (2002) called it national brand promotion attitude.