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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The degree to which a customer is pleased with the reduction in price that he/she was able to negotiate during a recent purchase is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the concern a consumer has for paying low prices contingent on some product quality expectations.

Three statements are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that he/she should receive a certain discount that is part of some promotion.

Three statements are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that a certain store uses a form of sales promotion that is insincere and that misleads customers.

This five-item, seven-point Likert-type measure assesses a consumer's reported adeptness at and enjoyment of bargaining.

This is a three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale that assesses the degree to which a consumer believes that a sale price is a true decrease in the normal price of a product rather than being the price typically charged by a retailer. The scale was referred to by Lichtenstein, Burton, and Karson (1991) as cue consistency.

The scale is composed of four statements with a seven-point Likert-type response format which are intended to measure the degree to which a person is certain that the price stated in an advertisement for a product at a certain store is the lowest one available.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure a consumer's attitude toward the price of a product with an emphasis on the extent to which it is viewed as a good deal.

A consumer's attitude about a particular price-deal he/she has been exposed to is measured with Likert-type measures in this scale.

The four item scale measures the degree that a customer believes that a particular service provider will provide him/her with a good deal and preferential treatment.