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The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University


Five, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that usage of a discount in a store would be observed by others. The scale was referred to by Tepper (1994) as social visibility manipulation check.

This 23-item, five-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a consumer believes that those who use a discount are devalued and discriminated against by store employees, other customers, and others in the users' shopping party.

Eight, seven-point items measure the degree to which a consumer perceives that he or she has opportunities to take advantage of grocery store deals, with an emphasis on the use of coupons.

Three, seven-point items measure the degree to which a consumer describes his or her tendency to search for several types of in-store promotions when shopping for grocery products. The scale was called looking for in-store promotions by Putrevu and Ratchford (1997).

Three, five-point Likert-type items are employed to measure a person's attitude about barriers to the use of coupons. The scale was called perceived institutional barriers by Tat and Bejou (1994)

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type statements and is intended to capture a consumer's attitude toward the time involved in using coupons.

A three-item, five-point Likert-type scale is employed to capture a consumer's attitude toward the financial benefits of using coupons.

Three, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's sense of whether other people use coupons when they shop. The scale was called interpersonal influence by Tat and Bejou (1994)

A person's attitude about a certain product offered at a certain price is measured in these similar set of scales. As used by Lichtenstein and Bearden (1989), the scale is composed of four bipolar adjectives and one Likert-type item, each of which employs a nine-point response format. Three-item, seven-point versions of the scale have also been used (Biswas and Burton 1993; Inman, Peter, and Raghubir 1997; Lichtenstein, Burton, and Karson 1991), as has a four-item, seven-point version (Bobinski, Cox, and Cox 1996).