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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

deception

The scale uses four Likert-type items to measure how much a person believes that another person does not legally own a certain item but is engaging in behaviors that seem to signal that he/she does.

Using four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a person believes that another person is attempting to mislead others by presenting an image of him/herself that is not true.

The scale uses seven, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person’s belief that an advertisement misleads people with its claims and implications about a particular product’s environmentally-related attributes.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure how much a person believes it is okay to give misleading or incomplete personal information to a company and that he/she is likely to do it.

With four, nine-point items, the scale measures the extent to which a person believes that one or more employees of a company engaged in improper activity that deceived and harmed clients.

Four, nine-point items compose the scale which measures the extent to which a person believes an employee of a company has done something that is either immoral and damaging to his/her company or, at the other extreme, was honest and helpful.

The degree to which a person feels disrespected and betrayed due to a company’s customer data activities is measured using four, seven-point Likert-type items.

Four, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to measure how much a person believes some entity is honest and not manipulative.  The focus of the measure is commonly a person, but the scale is general enough to be used with other entities such as a company, an ad, or a website. 

Using four, seven-point semantic differentials, the scale measures the honesty and ethicality of something.  The scale is general in the sense that it appears that it can be applied to a particular person or a group of people.  While it might be used to evaluate the trustworthiness of non-human entities (ads, organizations), it seems most suited for people.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person’s belief that he/she has been misled and taken advantage of by another party.