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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

discomfort

Composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a person believes that there were too many customers in a store.

The belief that one’s personal space would be restricted if one were in a particular physical environment is measured in this scale with three Likert-type items. 

The scale is composed of six, nine-point uni-polar items that measure one’s expressed level of unfavorable feelings.  While the scale appears to be amenable for use in a wide variety of situations, it seems to be best suited for occasions in which respondents have experienced something that did not go as well as expected.

The general level of discomfort a person reports feeling in the presence of others is measured with six statements.

With five, seven-point items, this scale measures a person's reaction to an appeal made by a charitable cause he/she has just read.  Four of the five items could be viewed as an affective response to the appeal but the fifth item taps more into the cognitive facet of the attitude.  Further, given the phrasing of the items, the scale would be most appropriate for use in those situations where it is possible for at least some respondents to be "upset" by what they have read. 

Twenty, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure how comfortable a person is with touching and being touched by others.   The statements are gender-neutral.  The emphasis is on the importance of physical contact rather than the gender of those who are touching.

A person' expressed feeling of physical discomfort while performing a certain task is measured in this scale with three statements.

The extent to which a person feels awkward in a certain social context is measured in this scale with three uni-polar items.

With three semantic differentials and an 11-point response format, this scale measures a person's attitude about how unpleasant something is.  While the scale could be used in contexts in which the focal object is likely to be viewed as positive, its creators (Smith, Faro, and Burson 2013) used the scale with respect to people and animals experiencing some sort of suffering.

The degree to which a customer believes that the interior of some physical space (such as a store) is unpleasant, particularly in terms of being cramped, is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items.  Depending upon one's preferred terminology, this could be viewed as a facet of atmospherics or servicescape.